FUEL PRODUCTS

JET FUEL

Aviation turbine fuels are used for powering jet and turbo-prop engine aircraft and are not to be confused with Avgas. Outside former communist areas, there are currently two main grades of turbine fuel in use in civil commercial aviation : Jet A-1 and Jet A, both are kerosene type fuels. There is another grade of jet fuel, Jet B which is a wide cut kerosene (a blend of gasoline and kerosene) but it is rarely used except in very cold climates.

Jet A-1 is a kerosene grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engine aircraft.  

 

Jet A is a similar kerosene type of fuel, produced to an ASTM specification and normally only available in the U.S.A.

 

MARINE DIESEL

Number 6 fuel oil, commonly referred to as D6, is a high viscosity residual oil – meaning the oil remaining after the more valuable cuts of crude oil have been boiled off – requiring preheating with special equipment to 104-127°C before use. This residual oil may contain various undesirable impurities and pollutants, including sulfur, water, and mineral soil. Because of these impurities and pollutants, however, D6 is the cheapest liquid fuel on the market.

 

D6 is suitable for use in power plants large ships, some industrial boilers, and in some older buildings. Because of the preheating requirements, D6 cannot be used in road vehicles, boats, or small ships, as the preheating equipment requires too much space and increases the vehicle's weight.

 

ULSD & EN590

"Low sulphur Gasoil" is no longer 4 percent - but below 0.2 percent. Then we have a new, "Ultra Low Sulphur" at 0.02% at the most, and the limit here is (a) that mass spectrographs requires extensive calibration to measure below 1000ppm, and (b) sulphur has a way to form clogs - the molecules binds to free hydrogen molecules and form a cluster of molecules that will break if "cracked" by the refinery, but as explained above, D2 is a distillate and has not been "cracked".

The GOST variant for D2/Gasoil is GOST 305-82 and specifies now a sulphur content of 0.02 MAX which is according to the ISO standard. However, the ANSI standard will call this "Ultra Low Sulphur", and retain 0.2% (2000ppm) as the "Low sulphur”. The reduction of sulphur in the Gasoil used for heating has contributed to less pollution in many cities.

 

LNG & LPG

LNG, or liquefied natural gas, is natural gas that is cooled to -260° Fahrenheit until it becomes a liquid and then stored at essentially atmospheric pressure. Converting natural gas to LNG, a process that reduces its volume by about 600 times – similar to reducing the volume of a beach ball to the volume of a ping-pong ball – allows it to be transported internationally via cargo ships. Once delivered to its destination in the U.S. or abroad, the LNG is warmed back into its original gaseous state so that it can be used just like existing natural gas supplies, by sending it through pipelines for distribution to homes and businesses.  LNG is used across the residential, commercial and industrial sectors for purposes as diverse as heating and cooling homes, cooking, generating electricity and manufacturing paper, metal, glass and other materials. LNG is also increasingly being used to fuel heavy-duty vehicles.

 

CRUDE OILS

Crude oil, commonly known as petroleum, is a liquid found within the Earth comprised of hydrocarbons, organic compounds and small amounts of metal. While hydrocarbons are usually the primary component of crude oil, their composition can vary from 50%-97% depending on the type of crude oil and how it is extracted. Organic compounds like nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur typically make-up between 6%-10% of crude oil while metals such as copper, nickel, vanadium and iron account for less than 1% of the total composition.

Bonny Light Oil is a high grade of Nigerian crude oil with high API gravity, produced in the Niger Delta basin and named after the prolific region around the city of Bonny.  The very low sulfur content of BLCO makes it a highly desired grade for its low corrosiveness to refinery infrastructure and the lower environmental impact of its byproducts in refinery effluent.

 

Petcoke is the coal hiding in north america's tar sands oil boom.  Petcoke is like coal, but dirtier. Petcoke looks and acts like coal, but it has even higher carbon emissions than already carbon-intensive coal. On a per-unit of energy basis petcoke emits 5% to 10% more carbon dioxide than coal.

Able To Procure 4 Types Of Coal In The US:

  • Lignite Coal

  • Anthracite Coal

  • Bituminous Coal

  • Subbituminous Coal

PET COKE

& COAL

 

© 2016 FORZA Global Energy Group

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